Preface ; 1. Introduction ; The aims of the book ; The climate for language testing ; Research and development: needs and problems ; Research and development: an agenda ; Overview of the book ; Notes ; 2. Measurement ; Introduction ; Definition of terms: measurement, test, evaluation ; Essential measurement qualities ; Properties of measurement scales ; Characteristics that limit measurement ; Steps in measurement ; Summary ; Notes ; Further reading ; Discussion questions ; 3. Uses of Language Tests ; Introduction ; Uses of language tests in educational programs ; Research uses of language tests ; Features for classifying different types of language test ; Summary ; Further reading ; Discussion questions ; 4. Communicative Language Ability ; Introduction ; Language proficiency and communicative competence ; A theoretical framework of communicative language ability ; Summary ; Notes ; Further reading ; Discussion questions ; 5. Test Methods ; Introduction ; A framework of test method facets ; Applications of this framework to language testing ; Summary ; Notes ; Further reading ; Discussion questions ; 6. Reliability ; Introduction ; Factors that affect language test scores ; Classical true score measurement theory ; Generalizability theory ; Standard error of measurement: ; Interpreting individual test scores within classical true score and generalizability theory ; Item response theory ; Reliability of criterion-referenced test scores ; Factors that affect reliability estimates ; Systematic measurement error ; Summary ; Notes ; Further reading ; Discussion questions ; 7. Validation ; Introduction ; Reliability and validity revisited ; Validity as a unitary concept ; The evidential basis of validity ; Test bias ; The consequential or ethical basis of validity ; Post mortem: face validity ; Summary ; Notes ; Further reading ; Discussion questions ; 8. Some Persistent Problems and Future Directions ; Introduction ; Authentic language tests ; Some future directions ; A general model for explaining performance on language tests ; Apologia et prolegomenon ; Summary ; Notes ; Further reading ; Discussion questions ; Bibliography ; Author index ; Subject index
This book advocates a new approach to pronunciation teaching, in which the goal is mutual intelligibility among non-native speakers, rather than imitating native speakers. It will be of interest to all teachers of English as an International Language, especially Business English. It proposes a basic core of phonological teaching, with controversial suggestions for what should be included.
A comprehensive overview of research methodology in applied linguistics which describes the various stages of qualitative and quantitative investigations, from collecting the data to reporting the results.
Representing a major statement of the research being conducted on the learning of second languages from a sociocultural perspective, this book - with a theoretical, and a separate empirical part - covers topics that include learning and teaching languages in the zone of proximal development, and L1 mediation in the acquisition of L2 grammar.
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Explores the relationship between research, teaching, and tasks. This book shows how research and task-based teaching can mutually inform each other and illuminate the areas of task-based course design, methodology, and assessment.
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